Announcements: Neuromuscular section updated with more questions.

ETIOLOGY:  variety of causes (tumor, malignancy, stroke, encephalitis, hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, trauma, global anoxic brain injury)


SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:  headache, nausea / vomiting, somnolence or coma, hiccups, yawning, focal deficits especially brainstem findings, seizures, anisocoria, unreactive or blown pupil, posturing, abnormal breathing pattern, Cushing’s triad [hypertension, bradycardia and irregular respirations]


WORKUP:  ABCs, clinical exam and STAT HEAD CT (wheel the patient yourself)


MANAGEMENT (If high suspicion, may want to start treatment on your way to CT)

  • ABCs: vital signs and cardiac monitoring, consider intubation
  • HOB elevated at 30 degrees, head facing forward
  • Consult neurosurgery (370 4492) for possible intervention
  • Goal ICP < 20 mm Hg and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) > 60 (see below for equation)


If herniation present:

  • STAT mannitol 100 g and then proceed to mannitol protocol (see next page) OR hypertonic saline
  • Hyperventilation: for goal pCO2 ~ 30


If ICP due to tumor:

  • dexamethasone 10 mg IV x 1, then 4 mg q6hr


For any patient with a mass lesion, stroke, tumor, hemorrhage, keep goal Na 140-145 (may need to go higher depending on what ICP does).  Avoid free water in IVF such as D5W, ½ NS, D5 ½ NS, LR



MAP ≈ (2DBP+SBP)/3

Powered by liveSite